Sports massage is a massage technique developed specifically for athletes, with the aim of preparing them for training competitions by increasing endurance, increasing efficiency, relieving fatigue and restoring tone after FC loads. According to the tasks, the following types of it are distinguished: hygienic, training, preliminary and restorative.
Hygienic massage is usually done by the athlete himself simultaneously with morning exercises, warm-up.
Training massage is carried out to prepare an athlete for the highest sports achievements in a shorter time and with less psychophysical energy consumption. It is used in all periods of sports training. The training massage technique depends on the tasks. Features of the sport. The nature of the load and other factors.
Preliminary massage is used to normalize the state of various organs and systems of an athlete before the upcoming physical or psycho-emotional stress. Depending on the tasks, the following types of preliminary massage are distinguished: warm-up, warming, mobilizing, tonic (exciting, stimulating), soothing (sedative).
Rehabilitation massage is a type of sports massage that is used after various kinds of stress (physical, mental) and at any degree of fatigue, fatigue to restore the various functions of the athlete's body as quickly as possible and increase his performance. A short-term restorative massage is carried out in a break of 1-5 minutes between rounds, during rest between attempts (approaches to the shells).
The main tasks of a short-term restorative massage are:
- relieve excessive neuromuscular and psychological stress;
- relax the neuromuscular system and create conditions for optimal rapid recovery of the body;
- eliminate the existing pain;
- to increase the general and special performance of both individual parts of the body and the whole organism.
In multi-day competitions, restorative massage is used in such sports as boxing, wrestling, skiing, figure skating, chess, etc., when passive rest does not relieve accumulated fatigue and does not give the desired recovery effect. This type of restorative massage is performed in sessions. Its tasks include:
- relieve neuromuscular and mental stress;
- to restore and increase the athlete's performance in an extremely short time;
- help normalize night sleep.
On weekends, days of rest from the competition, athletes strive to restore their strength, increase their efficiency, using restorative massage (1-3 sessions).
After the end of the competition, the complex of medico-biological means includes varieties of restorative massage (manual, vibration, ultrasonic) in combination with a bath, hydromassage, aeroionotherapy and other types of influences.